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Olha Ivashchenko, Sergii Iermakov, Oleg Khudolii

Background and Study Aim. The purpose of the study was to determine the ratio between means of teaching and motor training in junior school physical education classes. Materials and methods. The study involved 32 boys who were 8 years old at the beginning of the experiment. They were randomly divided into four groups of eight people each. A pedagogical experiment was conducted using a 22 full factorial design. The study recorded the following indicators: number of repetitions required to teach exercises; grade for a unidirectional movement coordination exercise (test 1); grade for a multidirectional movement coordination exercise (test 2); error in time accuracy of performing the squat thrust (test 3); error in time accuracy of 5 jumps on marks in 5 s (test 4); error in assessing muscular effort with visual control (test 5); vestibular stability, error (test 6). The obtained experimental material was processed statistically using statistical analysis software packages (SPSS 20). Results. According to the logistic function analysis, the achievement of an optimal result in differentiating temporal characteristics of movement requires 8.5 months, strength characteristics of movement – 8 months, movement coordination – 8 months, vestibular analyzer stability – 10 months. It takes 3 to 5 months to obtain positive increases in testing results in boys aged 8-9. The ratio of time allotted for strength training (ST) and coordination training (CT) to teaching motor actions (TMA) varies as 1:4 (ST: TMA) and 1:4.5 (CT: TMA). Conclusions. The ratio of time allotted for strength training, coordination training, and teaching to the time of the main part of the class ranges between 14.3-23.5% (strength training), 17.1-23.5% (coordination training), and 53.0-68.6% (teaching). As exercises become more complicated, the time allotted for strength and coordination training increases.

Sergii Iermakov, Oleg Khudolii, Denys Chupikhin

The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 7 throwing a small ball. Materials and methods. The study participants were 27 boys aged 7, who were randomly divided into three groups of 9 people each. The children and their parents were informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study examined the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 7 throwing a small ball at a target. A pedagogical experiment studied the impact of 6, 12, and 18 repetitions with a 60-second rest interval on the increase in the level of proficiency in exercises of boys aged 7. In the first group, the boys repeated the task 6 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the second group – 12 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the third group 18 times with a rest interval of 60 s. When teaching throwing exercises during the class, the study assessed the level of proficiency by the alternative method (“performed”, “failed”) and calculated the probability of exercise performance (p = n/m, where n is the number of successful attempts, m is the total number of attempts). In teaching boys aged 7, the method of algorithmic instructions was used. The next exercise started after three successful attempts. Throwing a ball at a vertical target was taught. The study materials were processed by the IBM SPSS 20 statistical analysis software. During discriminant analysis, a prognostic model for group membership was created. Results. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the skills of throwing a small ball at a target; to answer the question as to how significantly the modes of repetition differ by the effectiveness of motor skills development, to which class the object belongs based on the values of discriminant variables. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that 12 repetitions of the exercise (6 sets 2 time each with a rest interval of 60 s) significantly influence the increase in the level of proficiency in physical education classes. The results of group classification show that 94.4% of the original grouped observations were classified correctly.

https://doi.org/10.17309/jltm.2021.2.04 ·

**2021**, Journal of Learning Theory and Methodology, № 2, p. 75-81

Sergii Iermakov, Olha Ivashchenko, Oleg Khudolii, Sergii Chernenko, Viktoriia Veremeenko, Bohdan Zelenskyi

The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of exercises modes on developing a small ball throwing skill in boys aged 8.  Materials and methods. The study participants were 21 boys aged 8, who were randomly divided into three groups of 7 people. The children and their parents were fully informed about all the features of the study and gave their consent to participate in the experiment. The study examined the influence of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of teaching boys aged 8 throwing a small ball at a target. A pedagogical experiment examined the influence of 6, 12, and 18 repetitions with a 60-second rest interval on the increase in the level of proficiency in exercises of boys aged 8. In the first group, the boys repeated the task 6 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the second group – 12 times with a rest interval of 60 s, in the third group 18 times with a rest interval of 60 s. When teaching throwing exercises during the class, the study evaluated the level of proficiency by the alternative method (“performed”, “failed”) and calculated the probability of exercise performance (p = n/m, where n is the number of successful attempts, m is the total number of attempts).  In teaching boys aged 8, the method of algorithmic instructions was used. The next exercise started after three successful attempts. Throwing a ball at a vertical target was taught. The study materials were processed by the IBM SPSS 20 statistical analysis software. During discriminant analysis, a prognostic model for group membership was created.  Results. Discriminant analysis made it possible to determine the impact of the number of repetitions on the effectiveness of developing the skills of throwing a small ball at a target; answer the question as to how significantly the modes of repetitions differ by the effectiveness of motor skills development, what class the object belongs to based on the values of discriminant variables. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of group centroids, it was found that in boys aged 8, six repetitions of the exercise (6 sets one time with a rest interval of 60 s) significantly influence the increase in the level of proficiency in exercises during physical education lessons. The results of group classification show that 85.7% of the original grouped observations were classified correctly.